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英语中过去完成时用法剖析

减小字体 增大字体 作者:暂不清楚  来源:www.bob123.com  发布时间:最新发布
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  [摘要]过去完成时用来表示在过去某一时间之前或过去某一动作之前已经发生或已经完成的动作,也就是说,这种动作是发生在“过去的过去”。然而,除了其时态意义外,过去完成时还有很多种用法,可以表示不同的语气、意义和特别的修辞方式等。本文全面而详细地论述了过去完成时的多种用法。
  [关键词]英语教学 过去完成时 用法分析
  
  英语中的“时态”(tense)是个语法范畴,它是表示时间区别的动词形式,通过谓语动词的各种形式变化来体现。汉语中所不曾有“时态”的概念,中国学生在学习和应用时,很难从汉语中找到对应的结构和内容,因此一遇到时态问题时,总感觉失去了方向。时态也就成了中国学生学英语的一大语法难点。针对这一现象,我想就“时态”中的一种——过去完成时的用法进行系统而详细的分析、论述。
  过去完成时,按表达的内在意义的不同又可细分:时间时态意义和非时间时态意义的其它用法。
  
  一、时间时态意义
  
  一般说来,过去完成时在时间上的意义为:“过去的过去”(past-in-the-past), 指从过去某一时间点再看过去。 即过去某一时间之前或过去某一动作之前已经发生或已经完成的动作,该动作与现在时间不发生联系。其谓语动词的时态形式为:“ had +动词的过去分词 ”。句中常含有“过去某一时间以前”这样明确的状语或者状语从句。其具体用法如:
  1.表示某一动作或状态在过去某一时间前已经开始,该动作可能会有三种可能:
  a.这一动作或状态持续到该时间点,动作尚未结束并有可能继续持续下去;此时动词通常具有延续意义,句中常含有by/for/since/until/when/before 等表示时间延续长度或表示起迄的时间状语连用。 
  E.g. Mr. Smith had taught English for five years before he came to this college.
  I had been in college for three months by the end of last week.
  I had only been there for fifteen minutes when John came in.
  b. 这一动作或状态没有持续到该时间点,在此时刻以前已经结束。此时过去完成时的动作通常是短暂性动作。 句中不能有表示时间延续长度(一段时间)或表示起迄的时间状语连用
   E.g. When I got to the railway station, the train had left.
  She had got everything ready when I came.
  He had already built his own lab by the time he was ten.
  c. 在过去之前开始的动作,且重复发生,常带有频率状语。例:
  E.g. He told me her name only after I had asked her twice.
  I had written him fifty letters when he finally answered my letters.
  2.在主从复合句中,描述两个过去的动作或状态,应根据上下文的时间关系来确定。往往先发生的动作用过去完成时。
  E.g. They were angry because you had not kept your promise.
   When I had opened all the windows I sat down and had a cup of tea. 
  Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 
   It rained yesterday after it had been dry for many months. 
  3.过去完成时,常用于间接引语中:间接转述他人对过去情况的描述。
  E.g. He said he had seen the film the day before.
  The guide told us that an incident (事件) had taken place here in 1937.
  4.在“It was + the + 序数词( first, second or last ) 或最高级….+ that + clause …”句型中, that后面的从句用过去完成时。
   E.g. Last week I attended an international conference and saw Mr. Smith. It was the fifth time that I had met him. 上周我参加一个国际性会议,看到史密斯先生。那是我第五次见到他。
  It was the first time that she had been at an evening school.
  It was the first time this year that I had not worked on a Saturday
  
  二、其他用法
  
  过去完成时,除了用于严格的时间时态意义外,还可以应用到其他许多情况, 在特定的句型中,可以表示不同的意义、语气(虚拟语气)、以及特定的修辞方式等。比如: 表示过去未曾实现的愿望、打算或意图,也可用在动词wish后面的宾语从句,以及if 引导的条件从句中表示假设或想象。
  1.在句型:主语+had+hardly(scarcely ,barely)+过去分词+when(before)+主语+一般过去时 
  主语+had+no sooner+过去分词+than+主语+一般过去时
  该句型意思是: 刚刚……就……;一……就……;此时,句子的重心不在主句,而在从句。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。
  E.g. They had no sooner left the house than it began to rain.
  Hardly had he got into the room when the telephone rang.
  当否定词hardly,scarcely,barely, no sooner放在句首时,主谓要倒装。
  2.would rather 以及其变体would sooner, would/had rather(宁愿,宁可,但愿),常用来表示个人的偏爱、嗜好。其后接宾语从句,表示过去的愿望, 嗜好时, 用过去完成时。与wish, 或 if only意义接近,表达含蓄否定的愿望。
  E.g. I'd rather you had not done such a thing. 但愿你不曾干过这种事。
  I would rather that you had not told Tom the truth.
  
  3.动词hope , expect , think , intend , want , mean , plan , promise , suppose ,desire 等用于过去完成时态,可以表示过去未曾实现的希望、意图、愿望、打算等意义。
  E.g. You had hoped that when you came into the office this morning, the work would be gone.
  你曾幻想着清晨一上班活就干完了。
   I had intended to call on you yesterday, but someone came to see me.
   昨天我本打算要过来拜访你的,可是有人来找我.
  They had wanted to help but couldn't get there in time.
  他们本来想帮忙的,可是没能及时赶到。
  I had hoped to be able to take my seat in all this noise without being seen, but that morning the room was quiet and orderly.
  我本来希望在吵闹声中,趁别人看不见时,偷偷地坐到自己的座位上去,可是那天早上教室里却安安静静,有条不紊。
  We had planned to go to the station and take the train to Guangzhou on Sunday morning, but you didn't turn up. 星期天上午我们原计划到火车站乘火车去广州的,但你没有来。
  We had meant to give Mary a surprise, but she knew the secret early.
  我们本想给玛丽一个惊喜的,可是她早就知道了这个秘密。
  4.wish + that +宾语从句 (谓语动词用过去完成时), 表示过去未曾实现的愿望。
  E.g. I wish I had finished the work on time. (In fact, I didn't finish it on time.)
  我要及时地做完工作,那该有多好啊!
  I wish I had written a letter to you. (But I didn't write a letter to you.)
  我那时给你写封信,该有多好。
  I wish I had been to New York.
  5.在if引导的非真实条件从句中,用过去完成时,主句中用would / could / might / should + have + 过去分词,则表示与过去事实相反的假设或愿望。
  E.g. If he had been here last night, I should have spoken

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